The "Ghataka Sruthi" explanation continues.. .
"Ya: Pruthviyaam tishtan prutviyaa antharo yam pruthvii na veda yasya pruthvii sareeram" is in the Kaanva Shaaka of Bruhadaaranyaka Upanishad in Veda. It declares that the "Brahman is in the earth, entered inside it, who is not known by the earth and has the earth as his body/mode and controls the earth as Antaryaami" The Brahman is untouched by the impurities of the earth as he is the soul of it.
"Ya: Aatmani tishtan aatmano antharo yam aatmaa na veda yasya aatmaa sareeram" is in the Maadyanthina Shaaka of the same Uupanishad in Veda. It declares that the "Brahman is in the Jeevaatman, entered inside it, who is not known by the Jeevaatman and has the Jeevaatman as his body/mode and controls the Jeevaatman as Antaryaami" The Brahman is untouched by the impurities of the Jeevaatman as he is the soul of it.
The above two quotes from Veda are given to explain that the Brahman is the soul of all Achit and Chit entities and all the Achit and Chit entities are the body of the Brahman who is Shreeman Naaraayanan.
"ya: pruthviimaantharo sancharan yasya prthvii sareeram yam pruthvii
na veda, yo aksharamanthare sancharan yasyaaksharam sareeram
yamaksharam na veda yo mruthumanthare sancharan yasya mruthussareeram
yam mruthyurna veda esha sarvabhootaantaraatmaa apahatha paapmaa
deva: eko NaaraayaNa:"
is in the Subaalopanishad of Veda. In the same way as told above it declares that the Brahman is the soul of Prutvi (earth), Jeevaatman, Mrutyu (representative god of death) etc., and all these are the body (sareeram) of Brahman. The Brahman is untouched by the impurities of all chit and achit entities and the Brahman is with divine auspicious qualities. Shreeman Narayanan is the only God (Brahman) and He is the Antaryaami-Antaraatma of all the entities"
"iDvaa suparNaa sayujaa sakhaayaa samaanam vruksham pareshasvajaathe
tayoranya: pipalam swaadvathyanasnan anyoo abhichaakaseethi"
This is in MuNdakopanishad of Veda. It says that "Two birds having some attributes similar to each other are friends and are seated in a branch of one tree. Of these two birds, one bird eats the fruits of the tree, which are ripe. On the other hand the other bird does not eat the fruits and as such shines extraordinarily" From this verse, it is made clear by the Veda that both the Jeevaatman and the Paramaatman (Brahman-Vishnu) are present in the same body. The Jeevaatman enjoys and experiences the results of his karma (actions). On the other hand the Brahman just witnesses it and being untouched by such impurities shines with his natural greatness which is immeasurable. The Veda has ascertained that the Jeevaatman and the Paramaatman are always present together inseparably and also categorically ascertained the differences between the Jeevaatman and the Paramaatman.
"Antha: pravishta saastha janaanaam sarvaatma" states that the Paramaatman (Brahman) has entered into all the souls-jeevaatmans. The Brahman having entered into all the jeevaatmans rules them as Antaryaami and is the soul of all souls-jeevaatmans. Therefore the difference between the Brahman and the Jeevaatman is clear. Also, the inseparable relationship between Brahman and the Jeevaatman is also clear and this is what is declared as "the Brahman is everything" meaning, - "the Brahman is the Sarvaatma-the soul of everything - soul of all jeevaatmans and achit tatvas".
"Tath Srushtvaa thadevaanupraavisath tadanupravishya sachcha
"Satyam chaanrutham cha satyamabhavath"
This verse is in the Taitreeya Upanishad of Veda. It says "The Brahman created all the entities (by expanding them (making them as StUla with name, form etc) which were in subtle (Suksha without name, form etc) form. After creating them, the Brahman entered into all the created entities as "Antaryaami - Antaraatma". After being entered as such, he took the unchanging Jeevaatman and the changing Achit as his form (sareeram). This has very clearly told by the Veda that the Brahman himself is not Chit and Achit but the Brahman is the soul of Chit and Achit entities and therefore calls everything as Brahman. The differences between the Brahman's Swaroopa (nature-reality) and the chit and achit entities are very clear.
"Anena jeevenaanmanaa" is in the Chaandokya Upanishad. The "Sat Vidya" portion of it where this occurs is outlined as follows: The Chandokya Upanishad says - Aruna's son is Uddalaka. Uddalaka's son is Swethaketu. Uddalaka addressed his son
Swetaketu obeyed his father's order and completed the prescribed study of Veda and returned back to his house after years. Swethaketu thought that he has mastered everything. On seeing his son, Uddalaka understood that his son is yet to know the Brahman. Uddalaka therefore wanted him to get knowledge about the Brahman. In order to invoke his interest regarding the Brahman, Uddalaka questioned Swetaketu as follows:
Swethaketu should have got shocked on being questioned like this and doubted the question's logic itself. He did not know the answer any way. He asked his father
His father first made it clear to his son that the question is logical and then answered it in detail. He quoted examples -
He actually pointed out the oneness of cause (material cause - Upaadaana Kaaranam) and the effect (Kaaryam). To make him understand that Pot and Clay are same (but only different forms), he said
His father quoted few more examples in this regard. Swethakethu requested his father to kindly teach him that "Aadesa", knowing which everything becomes known! "Aadesa" means Brahman who controls everything by ruling everything. It is derived in Sanskrit as "Aadichyate Anena Ithi Aadesa:".
The upadesam (teaching) was started by his father - "Sat Eva Somya edmagre aaseeth ekameya adveteeyam". "O Somya (who is fit to drink the Soma juice (prepared in Soma yagnya)) the universe which you see now with manifold forms and names was not like this before its creation but was present subtle (difficult to distinguish) form of "Sat". Nothing is its support other than Sat.
The "Sat" wished "Tat Ikshatha Bahusyaam Prayaayethi". That is, the "Sat" wished that "I become the multitudinous (expanded-StUla) chit and achit tatvas ie., the universe". The "Sat" became many, as it wished. This is "Sat's" first Sankalpam (Wish).
The "Sat" wished again - "SOyam Devataykshatha Hanthaaham Imaa: Tisra: Devataa: Anena JevEna Aatmanaa Anupravisya Nama Roope iVyaakaravaaNi" that is the Sat wished "by having the representative divinities of Tejas (fire/light), Ap (Water) and Annam (Prutvi-matter) as Sareeram (body/mode), I enter into them as soul and give manifold names and forms to them". It became as it wished.
The Brahman (Sat) is therefore declared as the "Cause" (Kaaranam) of the universe. By the first sankalpam, the Brahman did the "Samashti Srushti" and by the second sankalpam he did the "Vyashti Srushti". "Samashti Srushti" means creating the universe in its amass form and "Vyashti Srushti" means creating the universe in its clearly diversified form. Further the Sat Vidyaa continues as follows "Sath Moolaa: Somya Imaa: Prajaa:" meaning the Brahman is the cause for all these chit tatvas (not only achit tatvas) also.
All the chit and achit tatvaas where in the subtle form (sUkshma - without form, name and identifications) as body/mode of Brahman before creation as "Sat" in such a way that it was hard to differentiate them with individual name, form and species identification. All these things (all the chit and achit entities) have no independent nature, existence and its continuance and actions without the support, control and lordship of Brahman. The Brahman controls all these chit and achit entities and their creation is purely dependent on Brahman. They all have the Brahman as "soul" and they all form the body of Brahman. Their continuance and destruction are also dependent on Brahman.
After these teachings, Uddaalaka concluded his sermon "Ithadaatmiyam Idam Sarvam Tat Satyam Sa Aatmaa Tat Tvam Asi Swethaketho" meaning, "The universe composed of innumerable chit and achit entities are pervaded by the "Sat" (Brahman) and has the Brahman as its Aatmaa (soul). The Sat is the universe therefore because of this inseparable body-soul relationship. (Similarly) You (Swethaketu) are also the same Brahman (as you (a Jeevaatman) are also pervaded by the same Brahman and you are having the Brahman as your Soul (aatma) and you are the body/mode of the same Brahman). The verse "Tat Tvam Asi" leads to a debate as the Advaitins tell their own personal idea as its meaning, which is different from the "Sareera-Aatma" bhaavam as discussed above.
The Brahman is the UpAdAna kAraNam and the Nimitha kAraNam for all chit and achit entities. This does NOT mean that his "Swaroopam" gets changed to Chit and Achit. But only his "Roopam" (Sareeram) which was subtle (sUkshma) chit, achits becomes expanded (stUla) chit, achits ie., the chit achits gets form,name etc.,. Therefore, the Brahman is "Satyam-Ignyaanam-Anantam" only, even though the Brahman is the UpAdAna kAraNam. The example for "clay" in this context is for understanding the concept. The changes in his "Roopam" does not in any way contradict "Satyam-Ignyaanam-Anantam". The same is the case with his divine "Roopam" (divya mangala vigraham) also which changes as per his wish in various avataaras. The Brahman who had subtle chit and achit as his "Roopam/Sareeram" is the same Brahman who is having expanded chit and achit as his "Roopam/Sareeram". Therefore the Brahman is UpAdAna kAraNam (Visistayoho Advaitam Visistadvaitam). As the Brahman wished and created the universe, the same Brahman is the "Nimitha kAraNam".
The Brahman with all the chit and achit tatvas as his body and who is with infinite divine attributes and untouched by all impurities is unparalleled and unsurpassed (Visistasya Advaitam Visistadvaitam). "Satyam-Ignyaanam-Anantam" states the nature (swaroopa) of Brahman as unchanging, sentient infinite is the nature of Brahman. The "Satyam" term makes it clear that the Brahman is different form Achit. The "Ignyaanam" term makes it clear that the Brahman is different from Baddha Jeevaatmans. The "Ananta" term makes it clear that the Brahman is different from the Muktha and Nitya Jeevaatmans. Therefore the Brahman is "Purushothama:" Shreeman Narayananan. The sruthi "Anena Jeeveenaatmana Anupravisya Naama RUpe Vaakaravaani" confirms the Sareera-Aatma Bhaavam between the universe and the Brahman.
Up to this, the Upanishad has stated the following:
Thus the Ghataka Sruthi does the synthesis of all the Bheda and Abheda sruties and establishes that the Brahman is the soul of all chit and achit entities and the entire chit and achit entities are the body of Brahman. When the Gataka Sruthi is used to synchronize, the Abheda sruthi verses mean to tell that nothing other than the Brahman qualified by the universe as his body exists. In the same way when the Gataka sruthi verses are used to synchronize, the bheda sruthi verses mean to tell that the Brahman, who is the soul of the universe, is different from the universe, which is his body. Body and soul are different entities but they are inseparably related. The body is therefore called "Aprutak Siddha Visheshanam" meaning the body becomes the inseparable attribute of the soul. The term "Aprutak Siddha" rules out independent existence of the body. Without the soul, the body cannot have swaroopam, stiti and pravruiti. Also, the soul has no mode without the body and therefore the body is called the mode (Prakaram) of the soul. Thus the Veda is consistently explaining only Visistadvaita Shree Vaishnavam without any contradiction.
A Concept called "Saamaanaadhikaranyam" which is a technical
grammatical concept, is used to explain the verse "Tat Tvam Asi"
clearly. This will be explained in the next lessons along with the
personal explanations given in this context by other philosophers of
other schools of thought.
Let us examine the meaning of the term "Visistadvaita". It is derived
by two ways - "Visistasya Advaitam - Visistadvaitam"
and "Visistayoho Advaitam - Visistadvaitam".
"Visistasya Advaitam" means - The Brahman qualified by all chit and
achit entities as his Saareeram/Prakaaram/Viseshanam
(body/mode/attribute) is without a second entity meaning unparalleled
and unsurpassed. This brings out the ultimate supremacy of Shreeman
Narayana Para Brahman who is Akila Heya Pratyaneeka: and Ananta
"Visistayoho Advaitam" means - The Brahman having the subtle
chit and achit entities as his Saareeram/Prakaaram/Viseshanam
(body/mode/attribute) before creation is the same Brahman having the
expanded (stUla) chit and achit entities as his
Saareeram/Prakaaram/Viseshanam (body/mode/attribute) after creation.
This brings out the fact that Shreeman Narayana Para Brahman is the
only material cause and efficient cause of the universe.
Shreeman Nigamaantha Maha Desika defines the same as
"Asesha Chit-Achit Prakaaram Brahmaikameva Tatvam".
This is the most precise definition of our Siddhaantham.
These concepts will be explained more in the future lessons.
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The Meaning of the term "Visistadvaita"
Let us examine the meaning of the term "Visistadvaita". It is derived by two ways - "Visistasya Advaitam - Visistadvaitam" and "Visistayoho Advaitam - Visistadvaitam".
"Visistasya Advaitam" means - The Brahman qualified by all chit and achit entities as his Saareeram/Prakaaram/Viseshanam (body/mode/attribute) is without a second entity meaning unparalleled and unsurpassed. This brings out the ultimate supremacy of Shreeman Narayana Para Brahman who is Akila Heya Pratyaneeka: and Ananta Kalyaana Gunaakara:
"Visistayoho Advaitam" means - The Brahman having the subtle (sukshma) chit and achit entities as his Saareeram/Prakaaram/Viseshanam (body/mode/attribute) before creation is the same Brahman having the expanded (stUla) chit and achit entities as his Saareeram/Prakaaram/Viseshanam (body/mode/attribute) after creation. This brings out the fact that Shreeman Narayana Para Brahman is the only material cause and efficient cause of the universe.
Shreeman Nigamaantha Maha Desika defines the same as "Asesha Chit-Achit Prakaaram Brahmaikameva Tatvam". This is the most precise definition of our Siddhaantham.
These concepts will be explained more in the future lessons.
Back to Tutorial Index Go to Next Lesson